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Pandurisector 5, Bucureşti Tel. Manolescu, Zoia coord. Gurgu, Mălina coord. Maftei-Golopenţia, Elena coord. Reference herein to any specific commercial products, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or dating constanța plus dequipes, does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favouring by the Department of Foreign Languages and Communication.

The views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the Department of Foreign Languages and Communication, and shall not be used for advertising or product endorsement purposes. Similitudes y diferentes de lenguas latinas europeas a comienzos del siglo XXI It is the creative drive that has never been lost in people and research in all fields implies not only new creations but also a diversity of ideas, approaches and methods, which should be disseminated.

This is what the present volume is about. We gathered here research papers from the conference on Professional Communication and Academic Discourse in the Global Context of Multilingualism, held at the Technical University of Civil Engineering and organized by the Department of Foreign Languages and Communication on June 12, The International Conference welcomed researchers from Romania and from dating constanța plus dequipes countries around the world providing opportunities not only to discuss on various research topics but also to create and tighten academic bonds between institutions.

As organizers of this event we would like to thank all the participants for the opportunity that was offered to us to have in one-place academic colleagues and friends that enabled a wealth of new knowledge and expertise to be shared, making the conference a memorable event. Nowadays, telecommunications are tremendously important and certain applications belonging to this field need some synthetic tools such ICS Manager Software — a database which proves to be not only a useful tool, but also an essential one, for all the activities concerning radio spectrum.

For these activities, engineers employ the ICS Manager Software which is quite accessible for the majority of those who are in charge with radio spectrum administration. Localizing this software is not an easy task and requires lots of adaptation processes and explanations for many specialized concepts using an encoded terminology.

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The present article introduces the main aspects of localization and proposes a short variant of how the Software ICS Manager could be localized into Romanian. Keywords: radio spectrum administration; internationalization; translation difficulties. This software along with ITU Radio Regulations may be seen as important reference tools for every employee in radio spectrum management.

The use of the software application involves an appropriate understanding of the radio communication terminology. Thus, the aim of this paper is to show that the equivalence in localization is significant since a device has only one function and a misinterpretation of a term may produce confusions in using a function of the software. Theoretical background Regarding the theory of localization, Anthony Pym argues that usually, only some parts from a software menu have been localized and some others have been not.

In the writing process of this paper, we have encountered the same 10 situation because there were only few strings localized into French and Spanish making the present research a new one. In translation, the features of skoposthoerie are the following: 1. Translation must be focused on semantic features topic, text content and meaning structureas well as on elements of form syntax, morphology, vocabulary and style.

Sava Hen ia, nr. Morfologia lumilor posibile Utopie, antiutopie, science-fiction, fantasy Ítefan Borbély, Marius Conkan, Niculae Gheran, Simina Ra iu, Andrei Simu, Olga Ítefan, Radu Toderici 4 Introducere Încå de la apari ia lor, utopiile au fost percepute drept mijloace de explorare imaginarå in vitro a unor lumi ßi a unor societå i diferite de lumea noastrå primarå. Autorii de utopii, poseda i adesea de o iluzie sau de un complex demiurgic, au folosit proiec iile utopice ca pe nißte epure în care au experimentat diverse tehnici de descompunere ßi recreare a realitå ii curente, pentru a investiga posibilitå ile conexe les possibles latéraux 1 ale istoriei, pentru a propune modele alternative la statele existente ale Europei sau ale lumii. Dupå um am aråtat în altå parte 2, utopiile pot fi våzute drept succesorul toposului medieval al Paradisului terestru. Dacå, de-a lungul Evului Mediu, grådina Edenului a figurat drept un paradis pierdut, închis oamenilor dupå påcatul original, în timpul Renaßterii optimismul umanist i-a condus pe numeroßi dating constanța plus dequipes ßi scriitori, începând cu Thomas Morus, la concluzia cå omul poate înlocui grådina divinå cu o cetate a oamenilor.

The target reader group is important, as well as the type of message that is sent to them and the effect that the translation will have upon them. The translator needs to analyze the text, then to devise a strategy for its translation according to the purpose of the target text, in full agreement with the text type concerned.

Ardelean, In our study, localization is focused on semantic features specific for the field to which the software is addressed. Sometimes, common concepts are adapted in order to describe new meanings in science and technology and that may create dreadful confusions for the linguist accustomed with the common language, but not with the new technical terminology. Should it be the lack of time for thinking or the lack of communication among specialists from the different fields linguists and telecom engineers for causing mistranslations or bad translations or even translations that are dating constanța plus dequipes a total disagreement with the specificity of our mother tongue?

The answer to this issue is given by the theory of localization explaining that we have to take a product and tailor it to an individual local market i. In an attempt to successfully localize software, we need a typical localization team which includes apart from the translator, the customer, the contact person, the in-country reviewer, the technical expert, the localization project manager, the engineers, the desktop publisher and quality assurance specialists.

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The program is developed with an intuitive and user friendly graphic user interface GUI. Installing the client part of the application on PC is rather simple without requiring advanced knowledge in database or programming. An important step in implementation is the migration of the actual database to the new system by keeping database existing structure.

Another significant step in implementation is adapting and customization of the application to the specific requirements for each customer. Prerequisites The purpose of this software is to be worked with; therefore, the producers of this software identify the necessities of the customers. The application contains a function for language shifting Fig. In IT terms, the producer facilitates the text localization messages, menus, and devices by simply creating dating constanța plus dequipes text file with the message in English and the blanks to be filled in for each equivalent in the required language as in Fig.

General description of the ICS Manager software as dating constanța plus dequipes platform for radio spectrum administration This integrated IT structure for radio spectrum administration consists in the main application: a database system and spectrum administration application client part.

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ICS Manager represents the global platform where the operators access the database and keep the evidence of different processes administered by the regulator dating constanța plus dequipes, fees, coordination, notifications and so on and so forth. Each department may have a particularized access to this system for radio spectrum administration with different menu configurations and different rights for accessing the tables with databases for different profile users.

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The database of the system contains the national databases for radio spectrum administration which includes: stations, equipment, antennas, and allotments of radio frequencies or channels, reports, invoices, fees as well as the digital maps.

This database is populated through a semi-automat process from the already existing database the customer has.

Avertisment : Informaţiile conţinute în acest anuar ne-au fost transmise de către membrii noştri cu dreptul de publicare. Editorul nu este responsabil pentru erori sau omisiuni involuntare care ar putea apărea în această lucrare sau pentru schimbări intervenite între momentul la care s-au strâns informaţiile şi cel la care s-au publicat. Nos Franța și România.

This process requires an active participation from the customer. For that reason, the clients distributed in this way can exist in different physical locations. Secondly, the Front Office application is an included package installed on the web server. It uses a local mirror database in order to isolate the master database from the internet.

A firewall is necessary with the intention of protecting the web server, the database and the application server from potential intrusions or hacking. The Front Office application has its own database application forms, the confirmation or information results.


Next, there is a list of some strings some quite easy to be translated others required revision from the specialists as already mentioned that have been partially localized as for the whole document the localization have not been done yet.

For the Latin string omni, a Romanian translation has been added because the term is usually used as a prefix whereas in this context, it is a string by itself. Retrieved on Dating constanța plus dequipes, software has many localized versions and its localization remains a constant challenge especially for translators.

Current attempts to apply these principles showed 2 It is a function used in converting data. Regardless of this fact, software translation is sometimes discredited by developers and during the process of translation many translators give up this endeavor thinking that this job may be done after the application is completed and, the customers are familiar with this kind of software and there is no need for the product to be localized as long Gasi i un site bun de dating it is purchased anyway.

dating constanța  plus dequipes

Bibliography Academia Română. București: Editura Agir. Academia Română. Ardelean, Carmen. Exploring Translation Studies. București: Conspress. ATDI Website.

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ATDIvideos's channel. New York: ACM: HCM Vereinbarung Website. International Electrotechnical Commission. Radio Regulations. Editions of Larus, James R. IEEE Software 21 3 : Star Temperatures. This paper aims at viewing literature for children in the light of a number of modern dating constanța plus dequipes theories based on interdisciplinariness and multiperspectivism the prototype theory, the polysystem theory, the skopos theory, the corpus-based translation theory and the audiovisual theory.

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In terms of translation models, we shall focus upon the analogue models and the functionalist interactive models offering the translators of literature for children equal status with authors, editors or clients and entrusting them to make the most appropriate decisions in the elaborate translation process which involves cross-cultural communication.

Keywords: prototype, polysystem, skopos, corpus-based theory, audiovisual theory, functionalist interactive model 1.

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Unity and translation guidelines are imperiously needed especially since CL is a heterogeneous field ranging from picture dating constanța plus dequipes to novels for teenagers, covering various types of discourse and addressing readers of different ages and with various interests and preferences.

Modern translation theories are characterised by interdisciplinariness and multiple perspectives hence they are relevant to our present concern. Superordinate is the highest level of inclusiveness and abstraction, basic-level is one level below and subordinate is the lowest level of inclusiveness and abstraction e. Following Rosch, Lakoff explains that most dating constanța plus dequipes our world knowledge is organised at the basic-level since this is the level at which one uses the shortest description for an object and terms at this level are most commonly used by people.

On the other hand, Vîlceanu 25 considers that the semantics of the prototype is in fact a referential mode much more flexible than the classical model of the necessary and sufficient conditions. The superordinate is one level of abstraction above the basic-level and the categories included here share only a few attributes with each other whereas the subordinate is one level of abstraction below the basic-level and its 20 categories share most of their attributes with each other, many of which overlap with other categories.

Children usually learn new words by including them in one category or another. Picture dictionaries might be organised according to this criterion. Another interesting aspect about these categories dating constanța plus dequipes that most of them, if not all, do not have clear-cut boundaries.

As a consequence, if different cultures have different judgements of degree of prototypicality for different reasons then translating literature for children would mean substituting a particular prototype of the SL with another prototype in the TL. An instance of domestication, this technique will help children form an idea of prototypes in their own culture or at older age just recognise the prototypes in their culture.

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On the other hand, translators might choose to preserve the prototypes in the TL if their intention is to introduce the young readers to prototypes in other languages and cultures. She considers that the outcome would be a peripheral position within the hierarchy of European literatures. Moreover, in these countries translated literature would become the main source of innovation.

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If when she refers to limited resources Thomson-Wohlgemuth has in mind the economic resources then she is right in assuming that this would be a reason for the peripheral position in the literary polysystem. When it comes to literary tradition and to translated literature as the main source of innovation. The example of the Romanian literature is eloquent in this respect.

In the s there was a true invasion of translated literature in Romania and Kogălniceanu, one of the Romanian leading figures of the literary movement of the time warned Romanian writers against the danger of translating mediocre works of foreign writers to the detriment of their national productions.

In his opinion, original autochthon literary works should exceed the number of translated books. Unfortunately, statistics in contemporary Romanian literature for children are again in favour of translations, dating constanța plus dequipes from writers of English expression. On the other hand, translated literature might assume a secondary position and in this situation it represents a peripheral system within the polysystem, it has 22 no major influence over the central system and even becomes a conservative element, preserving conventional forms and conforming to the literary norms of the target system.

However, translated literature itself is stratified ibidem: Some translated literature may be secondary while others, translated from major source literatures, are primary. In addition, Even-Zohar ibidem: suggests that the position occupied by translated literature in the polysystem conditions the translation strategy.

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If it is primary, translators do not feel constrained to follow target literature models and are more prepared to break dating constanța plus dequipes. They thus often produce a TT that is a close match in terms of adequacy, Ado site ul de dating the textual relations of the ST.

This in itself may then lead to new SL models. Irrespective of its primary or peripheral position, translated literature for children preserves its dynamic character requiring a continuous adjustment of the translation strategies in accordance with its integration in the caut barbat singur din ineu comentariile portalului polysystem. The situation described by Tabbert was in fact similar in other totalitarian regimes.

She also suggests that the internal stratification of the fields according to differential status may equally play a role in determining the degree of change in translations of literature for children and contends that there is some evidence that low status texts are adapted more than high status texts ibidem: The merit of the polysystem theorists is to have shown that translation represents a creative process which involves the original adaptation of the ST to the TC. Every translation is directed at an intended audience, since to translate means to produce a text in a target setting for a target purpose and target addressees in target circumstances.

The translator has to consider a double addressee the child and the adult and consequently choose 24 the educational, appropriate. The skopos theory expands the possibilities of translation, increases the range of possible translation strategies and releases the translator from the corset of an enforced literalness.

Intentional and unintentional changes affect the entire translation process. Unintentional changes may arise from the different language structures as well as from differences in translating competence.

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Intentional changes frequently occur in translating, if the aims pursued in the translation are different from those of dating constanța plus dequipes original. As far as intentional changes with a negative impact are concerned, CLT has been under the influence of ideology which lead to manipulation and censorship in the countries of the totalitarian regimes.

The first consists in trying to adapt the text in order to satisfy the socio-cultural expectations prevailing in the TC, expectations related to what is regarded as pedagogically and morally appropriate and useful for children. These two principles affect the different stages of the translation process and determine the acceptance and the affiliation of a text to the TC.

They both coexist and should be integrated in the guideline of a translator of literature for children. The skopos theory has been criticised and objections mainly concern the definition of translation and the relationship between ST and TT. Vermeer himself brings arguments against these objections. In his opinion, The notion of skopos can in fact be applied in three ways, and thus have three senses: it may refer to a.

Another objection would be 25 that not every translation can be assigned a purpose or an intention. Specific goals, functions and intentions do not restrict the translation possibilities or limit the range of interpretations of the TT in comparison to that of the ST.

In text linguistics and literary theory a distinction is often made between text as potential and text as realisation. When dating constanța plus dequipes text for children is actually translated, this is done with respect to an assumed function. Consequently, the trajectory of barbat singur caut femeie crasnoe translated book for children is not always the one expected by the translator or by the publishing houses.

Dating constanța plus dequipes all, success in the SC does not necessarily guarantee success in the TC but it is unquestionably a determining factor. The claim that the translator has no specific addressee or set of addressees in mind is clearly dismissed in the case of CLT which has to constantly report to the needs and expectations of the child-readers. The translator of literature for children makes a number of decisions during the translation process.

They are primarily based on the skopos, the concrete purpose and aims in a concrete translation commission. According to structure and organisation, the most frequent type of corpus is the parallel corpus usually made up of SL texts and their translated versions. Two other types could be added. The first is comparable corpora described as either a selection of similar texts in two or several languages or language varieties Sinclair cited in Laviosa, or as a combination of sub-corpus comprising texts written by native speakers of a language and a second corpus 26 made up of translated texts into the same language as the ones written by natives, the two not being source and target language versions, but independent of each other.

Judging by the language or languages involved, corpora are classified into monolingual, bilingual or multilingual ones.

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